Humanities to Digital Humanities

A. Confronting 3

Science has a productive influence on humanities

1. The digital humanities expanded the boundaries of humanities disciplines within and outside the academy.

2. The transition from traditional (text-based) into modern interpretations of humanities offered new understanding of human experience.

3. The confluence of science and humanities enriched intellectual and humanistic inquiries.

4. Scientific investigations influenced our subjective judgments on the value and nature of knowledge.

B. From Humanism to Humanities 5

Summary and Key Quotes on "From Humanism to the Humanities"

  • Development from humanism (1000-1500) to humanities (trivirum; 1500-1900) was heavily based in transcription of early classical texts (5).
  • “In other words, modern concepts of humanistic knowledge were built on authoring, narrative, and textual models specific to the medium of print, with the monograph gradually supplanting commentaries and critical editions as the inviable touchstone of scholarly knowledge and achievement” (7).

University Displinarity / Interdisciplinarity:
  • In the construction of public schools and universities, literature, philosophies, and classics divided from natural and physical sciences into their own discipline (6).
  • "Digital work challenges many of these separations, promoting dialogue not only across established digital lines but also across the pure/applied, qualitative/quantitative, and theoretical/practical divides” (7).
  • “Digital_Humanities adopts a different view: It envisages the present era as one of exceptional promise for the renewal of humanistic scholarship and sets out to demonstrate the contributions of contemporary humanities scholarship to new modes of knowledge formation enabled by networked, digital environments” (7).

C. Beginnings of Digitization 8

  • The emergence of Digital Humanities was concerned with textual analysis, cataloging, linguistics, pedagogy, and analyzing structured data.
  • The digital forms became an extension of traditional methods and took precedence as scholars began to design collaborative and multi-authored works.
  • The introduction of the Internet then expanded the Digital Humanities from a data processing tool to a method of creating new ideas and a new "multi-dimensional world".

D. Transmedia Modes of Argumentation 10

D. Transmedia Modes of Argumentation
1, Digital provides smart methods of communication between professors and students more than classic ways of communication(text-based).

2, Digital in 21st century has developed, enabled and trained students to practice "reading" and "writing" more critically than printed one.

3, "Demo culture in the DH has increased in contributing education and makes it more sufficient.

4, Digital humanity involves screen cultures including stationary computer monitors and movable tablet monitors, which enables pictures and sounds as well as texts. These different medias are to collaborate together to make more innovative working environment.

E. Designing Digital Humanities 12

Digital Humanities

  • Digital humanities projects are collaborative research, teaching, and publishing which involve shared knowledge by using computers.
  • Digital humanities projects mostly involve communication/graphic/visual designers who are concerned with the symbolic representation of language. In a world with fluid contours, humanists, designers, and technologists working together can move beyond considering what can be done with the tools at hand to ask: what can we imagine doing that mean not yet to be possible?
  • For digital humanists, design is a creative practice harnessing culture, social, economic, and technological constraints in order to bring system and objects into the world.
  • As digital humanities both shapes and interprets this imaginary, its engagement with design as a method of thinking through practice is indispensable.
  • Digital humanists have much to learn from communication and media design about how to juxtapose and integrate words and images, create hierarchies of reading, forge pathways of understanding, deploy grids and templates to best effect, and develop.
  • Not every digital humanist will become a designer,but every good digital humanist has to be able to "read" and appreciate that which design has to offer, to build the shared vocabulary and mutual that can lead to fruitful collaborations.

F. Computational Activities 16

  • What are the inherent problems within the intersection of the humanities and computation?
  • Ambiguity, interpretation, contingency, positonality, and differential approaches are essential elements of both computation and humanistic inquiry, thus solidifying their marriage to one another.
  • The computational foundations of Digital Humanities depend upon the basic building blocks of digital activity: digitization, classification, description and metadata, organization, and navigation.
  • In the first phase of digital activity, sorting, searching, calculating, and matching were basic operations performed on texts or data.
  • Markup languages introduced "tags" to the field, allowing the content of texts to be manipulated in the performance of an interpretive act.

Burdick, Anne, et al. eds. Digital_Humanities. MIT Press, 2012. pp. 16-17.

G. Curation, Analysis, Editing and Modeling 17

This section introduces four fundamental activities in Digital humanities:
1. Curation: An act of organizing and selecting materials in an interpretive framework or argument.
2. Analysis: The process of texts in a quantitative and statistic method.
3. Editing: The progressive activity of implementing changes.
4. Modeling: Shapes of argument expressed in information structures and their design.

H. Prototyping and Versioning 21

  • Versioning:
    • Traditional humanities scholarship can be "finished." Once research and scholarship has been offered up for publication, it can be safely set aside, barring the occasional notes at the front of a new edition.
    • DH, however, can be more iterative. You can always go back and add to/subtract from a project.
  • Prototyping:
    • Because DH is a process, it encourages experimentation. Knowing that a project can always be edited and changed allows a freedom to try innovative methods of conducting and displaying research.
    • Experimentation also allows for the implementation of prototypes - ideas that are not fully fleshed out but are given to the public for consumption in order to receive feedback regarding the efficacy of the scholarship / research.
    • Experimentation necessarily means that failures will occur sometimes. As such, DH has a "psychology of failure" built into it, i.e., an understanding that a project may not always work out - and that's ok!
    • This mirrors Silicon Valley start-ups that factor the "cost of failure" into their operational costs.

I. Generative Humanities as the New Core 23

Emerging Methods and Genres

A. Intro 29

B. Enhanced Critical Curation 32

C. Augmented Editions and Fluid Textuality 35

D. Scale The Law of Large Numbers 37

E. Distant Close MacroMicro SurfaceDepth
. . .